An overview of Assets, how to download and use, basic templates and examples, and more.
An overview of Assets, how to download and use, basic templates and examples, and more.
Assets (currently v3.3.7) has a few easy ways to quickly get started, each one appealing to a different use case. Read through to see what suits your particular needs.
No docs or original source files are included.
Hosted on Amazon CloudFront
Assets is downloadable in two forms, within which you'll find the following directories and files, logically grouping common resources and providing both compiled and minified variations.
Once downloaded, unzip the compressed folder to see the structure of (the compiled) Assets. You'll see something like this:
This is the most basic form of Assets: precompiled files for quick drop-in usage in nearly any web project. We provide compiled CSS and JS (
assets.*), as well as compiled and minified CSS and JS (
assets.min.*). CSS source maps (
assets.*.map) are available for use with certain browsers' developer tools. Icon fonts are included.
fonts/ are the source code for our CSS, JS, and icon fonts (respectively). The
dist/ folder includes everything listed in the precompiled download section above. The
docs/ folder includes the source code for our documentation, and
examples/ of Assets usage. Beyond that, any other included file provides support for packages, license information, and development.
Assets uses Grunt for its build system, with convenient methods for working with the framework. It's how we compile our code, run tests, and more.
npm install -g grunt-cli.
/assets/directory, then run
npm install. npm will look at the
package.jsonfile and automatically install the necessary local dependencies listed there.
When completed, you'll be able to run the various Grunt commands provided from the command line.
Watches the Less source files and automatically recompiles them to CSS whenever you save a change.
grunt test(Run tests)
grunt docs(Build & test the docs assets)
grunt build(Build absolutely everything and run tests)
grunt update(Build and deploy)
Build everything and run deployment to Amazon S3 bucket.
grunt release(Build, test and full deploy)
Build everything, runt tests and run full deployment to Amazon S3 bucket.
Start with this basic HTML head template.
Assets automatically adapts your pages for various screen sizes. Here's how to disable this feature so your page works like this non-responsive example.
<meta>mentioned in the CSS docs
.containerfor each grid tier with a single width, for example
width: 970px !important;Be sure that this comes after the default Assets CSS. You can optionally avoid the
!importantwith media queries or some selector-fu.
.col-xs-*classes in addition to, or in place of, the medium/large ones. Don't worry, the extra-small device grid scales to all resolutions.
You'll still need Respond.js for IE8 (since our media queries are still there and need to be processed). This disables the "mobile site" aspects of Assets.
Assets is built to work best in the latest desktop and mobile browsers, meaning older browsers might display differently styled, though fully functional, renderings of certain components.
Specifically, we support the latest versions of the following browsers and platforms. On Windows, we support Internet Explorer 8-11. More specific support information is provided below.
|Mac OS X||Supported||Supported||Supported||Supported|
For a list of some of the browser bugs that Assets has to grapple with, see our Wall of browser bugs.
Internet Explorer 8 and 9 are also supported, however, please be aware that some CSS3 properties and HTML5 elements are not fully supported by these browsers. In addition, Internet Explorer 8 requires the use of Respond.js to enable media query support.
|Feature||Internet Explorer 8||Internet Explorer 9|
||Not supported||Supported, with
Visit Can I use... for details on browser support of CSS3 and HTML5 features.
Beware of the following caveats when using Respond.js in your development and production environments for Internet Explorer 8.
Using Respond.js with CSS hosted on a different (sub)domain (for example, on a CDN) requires some additional setup. See the Respond.js docs for details.
Due to browser security rules, Respond.js doesn't work with pages viewed via the
file:// protocol (like when opening a local HTML file). To test responsive features in IE8, view your pages over HTTP(S). See the Respond.js docs for details.
Respond.js doesn't work with CSS that's referenced via
@import. In particular, some Drupal configurations are known to use
@import. See the Respond.js docs for details.
IE8 does not fully support
box-sizing: border-box; when combined with
max-height. For that reason, as of v3.0.1, we no longer use
Assets is not supported in the old Internet Explorer compatibility modes. To be sure you're using the latest rendering mode for IE, consider including the appropriate
<meta> tag in your pages:
Confirm the document mode by opening the debugging tools: press F12 and check the "Document Mode".
This tag is included in all of Assets's documentation and examples to ensure the best rendering possible in each supported version of Internet Explorer.
See this StackOverflow question for more information.
Internet Explorer 10 doesn't differentiate device width from viewport width, and thus doesn't properly apply the media queries in Assets's CSS. Normally you'd just add a quick snippet of CSS to fix this:
For more information and usage guidelines, read Windows Phone 8 and Device-Width.
As a heads up, we include this in all of Assets's documentation and examples as a demonstration.
The rendering engine of versions of Safari prior to v7.1 for OS X and Safari for iOS v8.0 had some trouble with the number of decimal places used in our
.col-*-1 grid classes. So if you had 12 individual grid columns, you'd notice that they came up short compared to other rows of columns. Besides upgrading Safari/iOS, you have some options for workarounds:
.pull-rightto your last grid column to get the hard-right alignment
overflow: hidden on the
<body> element is quite limited in iOS and Android. To that end, when you scroll past the top or bottom of a modal in either of those devices' browsers, the
<body> content will begin to scroll.
Also, note that if you're using a fixed navbar or using inputs within a modal, iOS has a rendering bug that doesn't update the position of fixed elements when the virtual keyboard is triggered. A few workarounds for this include transforming your elements to
position: absolute or invoking a timer on focus to try to correct the positioning manually. This is not handled by Assets, so it is up to you to decide which solution is best for your application.
.dropdown-backdrop element isn't used on iOS in the nav because of the complexity of z-indexing. Thus, to close dropdowns in navbars, you must directly click the dropdown element (or any other element which will fire a click event in iOS).
Page zooming inevitably presents rendering artifacts in some components, both in Assets and the rest of the web. Depending on the issue, we may be able to fix it (search first and then open an issue if need be). However, we tend to ignore these as they often have no direct solution other than hacky workarounds.
Even though real hovering isn't possible on most touchscreens, most mobile browsers emulate hovering support and make
:hover "sticky". In other words,
:hover styles start applying after tapping an element and only stop applying after the user taps some other element. This can cause Assets's
:hover states to become unwantedly "stuck" on such browsers. Some mobile browsers also make
:focus similarly sticky. There is currently no simple workaround for these issues other than removing such styles entirely.
Even in some modern browsers, printing can be quirky.
In particular, as of Chrome v32 and regardless of margin settings, Chrome uses a viewport width significantly narrower than the physical paper size when resolving media queries while printing a webpage. This can result in Assets's extra-small grid being unexpectedly activated when printing. See #12078 for some details. Suggested workarounds:
@screen-*Less variables so that your printer paper is considered larger than extra-small.
Also, as of Safari v8.0, fixed-width
.containers can cause Safari to use an unusually small font size when printing. See #14868 for more details. One potential workaround for this is adding the following CSS:
Out of the box, Android 4.1 (and even some newer releases apparently) ship with the Browser app as the default web browser of choice (as opposed to Chrome). Unfortunately, the Browser app has lots of bugs and inconsistencies with CSS in general.
<select> elements, the Android stock browser will not display the side controls if there is a
border applied. (See this StackOverflow question for details.) Use the snippet of code below to remove the offending CSS and render the
<select> as an unstyled element on the Android stock browser. The user agent sniffing avoids interference with Chrome, Safari, and Mozilla browsers.
Want to see an example? Check out this JS Bin demo.
In order to provide the best possible experience to old and buggy browsers, Assets uses CSS browser hacks in several places to target special CSS to certain browser versions in order to work around bugs in the browsers themselves. These hacks understandably cause CSS validators to complain that they are invalid. In a couple places, we also use bleeding-edge CSS features that aren't yet fully standardized, but these are used purely for progressive enhancement.
These validation warnings don't matter in practice since the non-hacky portion of our CSS does fully validate and the hacky portions don't interfere with the proper functioning of the non-hacky portion, hence why we deliberately ignore these particular warnings.
Our HTML docs likewise have some trivial and inconsequential HTML validation warnings due to our inclusion of a workaround for a certain Firefox bug.
Assets follows common web standards and—with minimal extra effort—can be used to create sites that are accessible to those using AT.
If your navigation contains many links and comes before the main content in the DOM, add a
Skip to main content link before the navigation (for a simple explanation, see this A11Y Project article on skip navigation links). Using the
.sr-only class will visually hide the skip link, and the
.sr-only-focusable class will ensure that the link becomes visible once focused (for sighted keyboard users).
When nesting headings (
<h6>), your primary document header should be an
<h1>. Subsequent headings should make logical use of
<h6> such that screen readers can construct a table of contents for your pages.
Currently, some of the default color combinations available in Assets (such as the various styled button classes, some of the code highlighting colors used for basic code blocks, the
.bg-primary contextual background helper class, and the default link color when used on a white background) have a low contrast ratio (below the recommended ratio of 4.5:1). This can cause problems to users with low vision or who are color blind. These default colors may need to be modified to increase their contrast and legibility.